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COVID-19 Edition: 加拿大正在发生什么?
来源:TCDSB中国招生办公室  发布日期:2021/1/11  点击次数:177
COVID-19 Edition: 加拿大正在发生什么?

作者简介:

Mr. Vincent Burzotta

Senior Consultant

TCDSB China Recruitment Office;

Former Superintendent of International Education Program

Toronto Catholic District School Board


Vincent Burzotta先生

TCDSB中国招生办公室后期项目高级顾问

前任多伦多天主教公立教育局(TCDSB)国际教育项目主管




摘要:

“So, if we can get the overwhelming proportion of the population vaccinated by let''''''''s say the end of the second, the beginning of the third quarter by the time we get into mid-fall of 2021, we can be approaching some level of normality.”                                                    ----Dr. Anthony Fauci

“所以,如果我们能让绝大多数人口在第二季度末、第三季度初,也就是2021年秋季中旬之前接种疫苗,我们就能在一定程度上恢复正常社会生活。”  

                                               ----安东尼·福奇博士


COVID-19 Edition: What is happening in Canada?

新型冠状肺炎病毒: 加拿大正在发生什么?


Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines approved for use in Canada

加拿大批准使用辉瑞生物技术和莫德纳疫苗


What are the differences between the vaccines?

新冠疫苗与以往传统疫苗有什么区别?

Until recently most vaccines were built around the theory of injecting the public with a modified version of the existing vaccine so that the body could eventually built an immunity to the virus once it enters the body. Both Pfizer and Moderna have abandoned that approach and have genetically altered a protein that helps cells protect against the virus. No actual COVID-19 virus is used in the vaccine.

直到最近,大多数疫苗都是围绕这样一种理论研制的即向公众注射现有疫苗的改良版,这样一来,一旦病毒进入人体,人体最终就能对其产生免疫力。辉瑞和莫德纳都放弃了这种方法,并对一种帮助细胞抵御病毒的蛋白质进行了基因改造。疫苗中没有实际使用COVID-19病毒。



So how does it work?

那么它是怎样起到免疫作用

Both vaccines are built on a new technology that uses messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) to trick your body into making tiny copies of the coronavirus s distinctive spike protein, which then teaches your immune system to fight off a future attack.

这两种疫苗都是基于一种新技术,利用信使核糖核酸(mRNA)诱骗你的身体制造出冠状病毒独特的刺突蛋白的微小拷贝,然后该蛋白教会你的免疫系统抵御未来的攻击。

 

How are they given?

疫苗如何接种?

The Pfizer-BioNTech is 0.3-millilitre dose liquid. Two shots are given 21 days apart. The Moderna dose is 0.5 -millilitres. Two shots are given 28 days apart.

辉瑞生物科技是0.3毫升的液体。两次注射间隔21天。莫德纳剂量为0.5 -毫升。两次注射间隔28天。


How well do they work?

疫苗接种后免疫效果如何?

Both vaccines have posted very high efficacy rates based on testing on thousands of people around the world. Pfizer-BioNTech was found to be 95 per cent effective, and Moderna was 94.5 per cent effective. Those percentages were calculated by comparing the number of trial volunteers who got COVID-19 after having been vaccinated versus those who were part of the placebo group.

这两种疫苗在世界各地成千上万人的测试中都显示出了非常高的有效性。辉瑞生物科技公司和莫德纳有效率分别为95%94.5%。这些百分比是通过将接种疫苗后感染COVID-19的试验志愿者人数与安慰剂组的志愿者人数进行比较计算得出的。


How are they transported? 

疫苗如何运输?

This is the most significant difference between the two vaccines. The Pfizer-BioNTech is more challenging to transport requiring temperatures between -70 and -80 C. Once it s defrosted, it must be used relatively quickly. Canada is investing in new refrigerators able to store the vaccine but they will be limited. The Moderna vials can be shipped at -20 C making them available to many existing refrigeration units.

这是两种疫苗之间最显著的区别。辉瑞生物技术公司的疫苗运输需要零下7080摄氏度温度的设备,相对来说更有挑战性。一旦解冻,必须相对较快地使用。加拿大正在投资购买能够储存疫苗的新冰箱,但它们将受到限制。莫德纳小瓶可以在-20摄氏度的温度下运输,使其可以用于许多现有的制冷设备。


Are there other vaccines in use in Canada? 

加拿大还在使用其他疫苗吗?

As of January 2021, only 2 vaccines are available but Oxford-AstraZeneca recently received approval in Great Britain. This vaccine has achieved 80% effectiveness with 2 injections 3 months apart. Also, the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine can be shipped at 4 C, which would give it an advantage. It is expected that Health Canada will soon be reviewing this vaccine and approval could be a few weeks away.

截至20211月,只有两种疫苗可用,但牛津-阿斯利康公司最近在英国获得批准。这种疫苗每隔3个月注射2次,有效性达到80%。此外,牛津-阿斯利康公司的疫苗可以在4摄氏度下运输,这将给它一个优势。预计加拿大卫生部将很快审查这种疫苗,并可能在几周后获得批准。


What is herd immunity and why is it important? 

什么是群体免疫?为什么它很重要?

Herd immunity is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a sufficient percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, whether through vaccination or previous infections. When this is achieved the likelihood of infection for individuals who lack immunity is drastically reduced.


群体免疫是一种间接防御传染病的形式,发生在人口中有足够比例的人通过接种疫苗或以前的感染对某种感染产生了免疫力时。实现这一点后,缺乏免疫力的人感染的可能性就会大大降低。


Dr. Fauci who is the Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases, said this about Herd immunity, I think 75-80% for herd immunity for COVID-19 is a reasonable estimate and most of my colleagues agree.

美国国家过敏和传染病研究所(National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases)所长福奇博士(Dr. Fauci)在谈到群体免疫时表示:“我认为,对于COVID-19的群体免疫,75-80%是一个合理的估计,我的大多数同事也同意这一点。”


This means that once a community (city, province or country) is able to vaccinate its population where 75-80% are immune, that means that life as we knew it before the pandemic can return to normal.

这意味着,一旦一个社区(城市、省或国家)能够为其人口接种疫苗,其中75-80%的人具有免疫力,这就意味着大流行之前我们所知道的生活可以恢复正常。


 


So, when can we get our vaccine injections in Ontario??

那么,我们什么时候能在安大略省注射疫苗?


The province of Ontario has announced 3 phases for the rollout of vaccines.

安大略省宣布疫苗的推广分三个阶段


Phase 1: Now to April 

第一阶段:从现在到四月


The province will focus on health-care workers and the residents of long-term care facilities and retirement homes, which have experienced the worst outcome throughout the pandemic.

安省将重点关注卫生保健工作者和长期护理机构和养老院的居民,他们在整个病毒大流行期间经历了最糟糕的影响。

 

The province says it will also offer vaccines to select vulnerable communities during this phase, such as First Nations in Northern Ontario. As of January 1st, 2021, Ontario expects to receive an additional 50,000 doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine in the first week of January, and approximately 80,000 per week after that for the remainder of the month. Ontario has already received its first shipment of the Moderna vaccine, comprising 50,000 doses. The province says it expects to vaccinate approximately 1.1 million people by the end of March.

安省表示,在这一阶段,它还将向选定的弱势群体提供疫苗,例如在安大略省北部的第一民族。截止到202111日,安大略省预计将在1月的第一周获得额外的5万剂辉瑞生物技术疫苗,此后每月约8万剂。安大略省已经收到了第一批含有5万剂的莫德纳疫苗。该省表示,预计到3月底将为大约110万人接种疫苗。


Phase 2: April to July 

第二阶段:4月至7


Phase 2 will mark the start of a widespread campaign to administer millions of vaccines every month to a wider range of Ontario''''''''s population. The province anticipates that it will receive 15 million doses of vaccine between April and the end of June, or about five million per month. It''''''''s not yet clear how many doses of each vaccine will be included in that supply. The province plans to set up mass vaccination sites during this phase to administer the doses. Some hospitals will also offer vaccinations, and it is possible that pharmacies could also take part as well.

第二阶段将标志着一场广泛运动的开始,每个月向更广泛的安大略人口提供数百万支疫苗。该省预计将在4月至6月底收到1500万剂疫苗,即每月约500万剂。目前还不清楚每种疫苗将包括多少剂。该省计划在这一阶段建立大规模疫苗接种点以管理剂量。一些医院也将提供疫苗接种,药店也有可能参与接种。


The head of Ontario''''''''s vaccine distribution task force is retired general Rick Hillier and he says it has not yet decided how it will prioritize access during the start of this phase, though Hillier said essential workers and older Ontarians would likely be first in line.

安大略省疫苗分发工作小组的负责人、退休将军里克希利尔(Rick Hillier)表示,目前还没有决定在这一阶段如何优先发放疫苗,不过希利尔表示,重要工作人员和安大略老年人可能会排在首位。

 


He said people 75 and older might be prioritized, followed by people aged 50 to 75. Hillier also listed farm workers, police officers and teachers as examples of essential workers who could be prioritized during this phase.

他说,75岁及以上的人可能会被优先考虑,其次是50岁至75岁的人。希利尔还将农场工人、警察和教师列为这一阶段可以优先考虑的基本工人。


Ontario hopes to vaccinate approximately 8.5 million residents by the end of phase 2, at a rate of about 150,000 residents daily. The province has a population of 14.7 million.

安大略省希望在第二阶段结束前为850万居民接种疫苗,每天约15万居民接种。该省有1470万人口。


Phase 3: August and beyond 

第三阶段:八月及以后


Hillier referred to the third and final part of the campaign as the "steady state" phase, in which the vaccine will be widely available on an ongoing basis at places like family doctors'''''''' offices and pharmacies.

希利尔将疫苗运动的第三个也是最后一个阶段称为平稳阶段,在这个阶段,疫苗将在家庭医生办公室和药房等地方持续广泛提供。


Hillier said that getting a COVID-19 vaccine during this period should be no harder than getting a shingles or flu vaccine.

希利尔表示,在此期间接种COVID-19疫苗应该不会比接种带状疱疹或流感疫苗更难。


If there is a need for renewals or booster shots for any of the vaccines, those will also be administered within this phase.

如果需要更新或加强注射任何一种疫苗,也将在这一阶段进行。


How will this impact the 2021-22 Academic year?

这将如何影响2021-22学年教学模式?


If we assume that there are only 2 vaccines available in Canada in 2021 then the majority of Canadians will be vaccinated by August 2021. In fact, Prime Minister Trudeau has said that by September 2021 he expects most if not all Canadians will be vaccinated. Canada s population is approximately 36 million people and Ontario s population is just under 15 million. With those numbers and if vaccines continue to be available, it can be reasonably expected that herd immunity could be achieved before August 2021.

如果我们假设2021年加拿大只有两种疫苗可用,那么大多数加拿大人将在20218月之前接种疫苗。事实上,特鲁多总理已经表示,到20219月,他预计大多数(如果不是全部)加拿大人将接种疫苗。加拿大人口约为3600万,安大略的人口接近1500万。有了这些数字,如果疫苗继续可用,可以合理地预期,群体免疫将在20218月之前实现。


What is more encouraging is that the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine will likely be available soon in Canada and other vaccine manufacturers will soon be completing their clinical phase 3 trials. Once completed, approvals should follow in the weeks and months to come.

更令人鼓舞的是,牛津-阿斯利康联合疫苗可能很快就会在加拿大上市,其他疫苗制造商也将很快完成他们的临床3期试验。一旦完成,批准应该会在未来几周或几个月内完成。


Canada has signed purchasing deals with 7 COVID-19 vaccine manufactures totaling more than $1 billion dollars. With more vaccines available timelines can change. In fact, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says that it s possible that Canada will be able to accelerate its timeline for vaccinating all Canadians who want to be against COVID-19. If that is true then herd immunity can be achieved much sooner than August.

加拿大已与7COVID-19疫苗生产商签署了总额超过10亿美元的采购协议。随着疫苗数量的增加,时间表可能会改变。事实上,加拿大总理特鲁多表示,加拿大有可能加快为所有加拿大人接种COVID-19疫苗的时间表。如果这是真的,那么在8月之前就可以实现群体免疫。


In short it is reasonable to assume that the 2021-22 Academic year will be as close to normal as possible. However, it is also safe to assume that safety measures will be something we will have to learn to live with.

简而言之,我们有理由认为2021-22学年将尽可能接近正常。然而,也可以肯定的是,持续的安全措施将是我们必须学会接受的。


January 2021

2021年1

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